Notre-Dame de Paris cathedral, commonly known as Notre-Dame, is one of the most emblematic monuments of Paris, located on the Ile de la Cité, and a Catholic place of worship, seat of the Archdiocese of Paris, dedicated to the Virgin Mary. Begun at the instigation of Bishop Maurice de Sully, its construction spanned more than two centuries, from 1163 to the mid-fourteenth century. After the French Revolution, the cathedral benefited between 1844 and 1864 from a major restoration, sometimes controversial, under the direction of the architect Viollet-le-Duc, who incorporated elements and original motifs.